Apostasy in Christianity is the rejection of Christianity by someone who formerly was a Christian. The term apostasy comes from the Greek word apostasia (“ἀποστασία”) meaning defection, departure, revolt or rebellion. It has been described as “a willful falling away from, or rebellion against, Christianity.
9 “Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by all nations because of me. 10 At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, 11 and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people. 12 Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, 13 but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.
Apostasy: A Clear and Ever-Present Danger
The idea that it is impossible for a child of God to so sin as to be lost eternally is widely believed by many sincere people.
But the idea is fallacious. It was first vocalized in the Garden of Eden by Satan, who lied to Eve by telling her that disobedience to God would not result in death (Gen. 3:4; cf. Jn. 8:44). Human history has demonstrated the devastating consequences of believing that error.
In later ages, the dogma of the impossibility of apostasy was popularized by John Calvin (1509-64). It is, however, without biblical support.
The Possibility of Apostasy
That apostasy from the true faith is possible may be demonstrated in several ways.
An individual disciple may depart from the truth.
Simon, a sorcerer of Samaria, heard the gospel of Christ, believed it, and was immersed, just as others in that region had been (Acts 8:12-13). When he observed that the apostles had the ability to confer miraculous gifts, he was intrigued by the prospect of possessing this power for himself. And so he attempted to bribe the apostles into bestowing the gift upon him. He was seriously in error on this matter, both in disposition (v. 21) and in the act itself.
Accordingly, Peter sternly rebuked the wayward disciple, warning him that he could “perish” (v. 20), which is the equivalent of being lost (cf. Luke 13:3). The apostle urged Simon to pray that he might obtain forgiveness (v. 22).
The Scriptures also indicate that a congregation of God’s people may fall away from the faith.
On his third missionary journey, Paul came to the city of Ephesus (ca. A.D. 52). There he taught the gospel and baptized a dozen men.
The members of that congregation had been saved by grace through faith when they were immersed into Christ (cf. Ephesians 2:8-9; 5:25-26; Acts 19:5; cf. 2:38). Paul labored in this great city some three years, and the church prospered (Acts 19:8, 10; 20:31).
But some four decades later, the scene was very different. On the Isle of Patmos (ca. A.D. 96), the Lord Jesus Christ, through the apostle John, dispatched a series of letters to seven congregations in Asia. One of these was the Ephesian church (Rev. 2:1-7). To that group Christ presented this indictment: “You have left your first love” (v. 4, NASB).
“First love” seems to be an allusion to the passionate love for the Savior that these brethren entertained at the commencement of their Christian lives (Alford n.d.; cf. Jer. 2:2). The Lord promised that unless they repented and returned to their “first works” (i.e., those of the earlier days of their discipleship; cf. Danker et al. 2000, 892-893), their lampstand would be removed.
Since the lampstand represented the church itself (cf. Rev. 1:20), this was the equivalent of a threat of disinheritance (cf. Num. 14:12). A church can depart from the faith.
Then, a significant movement (i.e., a conglomerate of churches) can drift from the truth.
In his second epistle to the church in Thessalonica, Paul warned of the days to come when “the falling away” (Greek
apostasia) would occur (2 Thess. 2:3). While the Greeks frequently used this term of political rebellion, in the New Testament “verbal forms related to
apostasia are commonly used in religious contexts” (cf. Lk. 2:37; 8:13; 1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim. 2:19; Heb. 3:12; see Martin 1995, 233). Clearly, that is the meaning here.
The notion that this text merely deals with those who profess Christianity but really are not Christians at all is false.
The use of the definite article, “the” apostasy, is important. It identifies a specific movement and focuses upon the sum of those digressive acts which resulted ultimately in the development of modern Christendom.
The progress, though occurring in stages, is considered to be a unified movement (Middleton 1841, 382-383). The entire church did not defect from the faith, but a sizable segment did (cf. Dan. 2:44; 1 Tim 4:1ff). The theory that this falling away is a movement associated with the rise of the antichrist and a rapture at the time of the Lord’s second coming is without merit.
Some Causes of Apostasy
Inasmuch as it clearly is possible to depart from the primitive faith, surely this inquiry is appropriate. What precipitates apostasy? Many causes might be suggested. Only a few may be mentioned here.
Some leave the faith because of persecution.
In one of his parables, Jesus spoke of the superficial person who endures for a while, but “when tribulation and persecution arise because of the word, straightway he stumbles” (Mt. 13:21). The Christian is charged to be faithful, even if it means the forfeiture of his life (Rev. 2:10).
Others fall away because, not understanding the permissive will of God (i.e., his allowance of natural hardships, which are a consequence of humanity’s initial rebellion), they blame the Creator for those dire circumstances that sometimes invade their lives. As a result, they walk away from Providence.
One of the great lessons of the book of Job is that God does not shield his people, even the best of them, from life’s tragedies. We must learn to trust our Maker, no matter what happens to us (Job 13:15).
Many Christian souls have become victims of false teaching.
There are those who seem to think that false teachers do not exist. But the Savior warned of this danger (Mt. 7:15) and subsequent history reveals the devastation of believing error (cf. 1 Tim. 4:1ff; 2 Tim. 4:1ff).
In our own day, we have observed many in the church yielding to the influence of error. From Nashville to Abilene to Malibu, defection from the ancient faith is apparent. The expression, “the old paths,” has become a term subject to ridicule by a new clan of self-designated sophisticates whose ambition seems to focus on fashioning a church in their own image, rather than after the biblical pattern.
There are those who simply wander away from fidelity in a gradual fashion.
The writer of the book of Hebrews spoke of the distinct possibility of neglecting one’s salvation and drifting away from the saved state (Heb. 2:1-3).
In our present environment of busy activities, it is not difficult to allow life’s distractions to choke out our passion for serving Christ (cf. Mt. 13:22) so that we subordinate the interests of the Lord’s kingdom to a multitude of trivial things (contrary to Mt. 6:33).
For many, worldliness has an allurement that has drawn them to destruction, much like the silly fly in Mary Howitt’s famous poem. With flattery, the shallow creature was charmed into the spider’s deadly web (cf. 2 Tim. 4:10).
To employ a metaphor more in line with biblical imagery, some members of the church are languishing in a pigpen (cf. Lk. 15:15) and they no longer even smell the stench!
“They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us” (1 John 2:19a).